Assembly of Princes -- Frankfurt-on-the-Main 1863
No.1 Ernst II - Duke of Sachsen Coburg Gotha No.2 Friedrich I - Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau No.3 Friedrich Franz II - Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin No.4 Friedrich Wilhelm - Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz No.5 Adolph Georg - Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe No.6 Dr. Müller - Mayor of Frankfurt No.7 Karl Alexander - Grand Duke Sachsen-Weimar No.8 Johann - King of Saxony No.9 Peter - Grand Duke of Oldenburg No.10 Maximilian Joseph II - King of Bavaria No.11 Dr. Roeck - Mayor from Lübeck No.12 Heinrich XIV  - Hereditary Prince of Reuss-Schleiz No.13 Franz-Joseph I - Emperor of Austria-Hungary No.14 Heinrich - Prince of The Netherlands No.15 Dr. Haller - Mayor of Hamburg No.16 Georg V - King of Hannover No.17 Georg Victor - Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont No.18 Friedrich Wilhelm I - Elector of Hessen No.19 Freidrich Günther - Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt No.20 Johann - Prince of Liechtenstein No.21 Bernhard II - Duke of Sachsen-Meiningen No.22 Günther Friedrich Carl II - Prince of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen No.23 Arnold Duckwitz - Mayor of Bremen No.24 Frederick Wilhelm Ludwig - Grand Duke of Baden No.25 Adolf Wilhelm - Duke of Nassau No.26 Wilhelm - Duke of Brunswick No.27 Ludwig III - Grand Duke of Hessen-Darmstadt No.28 Karl I - Crown Prince of Württemberg Congress of Princess - Frankfurt 1863 (Larger image here)

This project was inspired by the photograph which dominates the top of the page. (scroll over faces for details)

This remarkable assemblage was gathered on 1st September 1863 at Frankfurt-on-the-Main. Called by the Emperor of Austria to try and both influence the formation of the German conferadation and curb Prussia's (the second most powerful nation within the confederation at the time) growing power. Prussia is notably absent from the gathering. A summary of events can be read here . In the picture there are:

1 Emperor
3 Kings
6 Grand Dukes
4 Dukes
9 Princes
1 Elector
4 Free City Mayors


The vast majority of these rulers issued coins with most of them issuing the 1 thaler piece, a common "bullion" coin of the time. My project is to collect a coin for each ruler and to put a coin image beside that of the representative at the meeting in the table below.

Not every space will be filled in the appropriate way. While Freidrich I from Anhalt-Dessau did have coins issued bearing his image they were unfortunately not the thaler nor the 3 Mark Piece. An example of his father Leopold IV will suffice which is somewhat fitting as he was actually still alive at the time of the photograph. Additionally the city of Hamburg did not issue the 1 thaler coin at all so a different demonation will have to act as a representative coin. The 1 thaler coin from Liechenstein is very rare and expensive but thankfully Prince Franz Joseph II authorised a restrike in 1968 and I have been able to obtain one of these.

The Mayors of the four free citys do not, of course issue coins in their name but it should still be possible to obtain a representative type that would have been used at the time. The City of Lubeck did not issue a thaler at the time of this meeting, though it did in the later part of the previous century and it issued 3 Mark coins in the early 20th Century.

It is only Prince Henry of the Netherlands for which no truely suitable coin can be inserted. In his role as "Governor of Luxemburg" he issued no coins at all - However I have used the best example of a Luxemburg 10 Centimes of the time that I have. Indeed, it's amazing to think that out of the 28 individuals in this photograph only 5 did not have their image on a coin.

The rulers are notionally numbered 1 to 28 from left to right. It is worth noting that the order of precedence of these rulers is complex, refering as much to family history as to current title. A summary table can be seen here .

Additionally
-- a table showing the rulers of Europe and representative coins I have for them can be seen here (warning- large page)
-- a page showing other silver crown sized coins here
-- a page showing other silver minor world coins here
-- a page of indian rupees to be found here
-- a page of Medieval penny type coins to be found here
-- a listing 50 pence coins mostly pulled from circulation be found here
-- a listing of £20 coins here
-- a page of silver Czechoslavakia / Czech Republic coins here
-- a listing of other coins to be found here


I hope this is of interest.

Malcolm Megaw ©

Photo No.
Ruler
Territory
Ruler Image
Coin image to be added
Coin Type
Reference
No.1 Ernst II Duke of
Sachsen Coburg Gotha
Ernst II Sachen-Coburg-Gotha Ernst II 1852 1 Thaler 1 Thaler C.120b

mintage:
8,000
No.2 Friedrich I Hereditary Prince
of Anhalt-Dessau
Friedrich I Anhalt
anhalt dessau 1863 1 thaler
1 Thaler
of Leopold IV
KM15

mintage:
50,000
No.3 Friedrich Franz II Grand Duke of
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Friedrich Franz II
Mecklenburg Scherwin 1864 1 thaler
1 Thaler KMA310

mintage:
100,000
No.4 Friedrich Wilhelm Grand Duke of
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Friedrich Wilhelm
No.4 Frederick William Grand Duke of Mecklenburg
1 Thaler KM100

mintage:
50,000
No.5 Adolph Georg Prince of
Schaumburg-Lippe
Adolph Georg
No.5 Adolf Georg of Schaumburg-Lippe
1 Thaler KM47

mintage:
7,000
No.6 Dr. Müller Mayor of
Frankfurt
Dr. Muller
Frankfurt 1863 1 Thaler
1 Thaler KM360

mintage:
20,000
No.7 Karl Alexander Grand Duke
Sachsen-Weimar
Karl Alexander
Karl Alexander
1 Thaler C.93

mintage:
63,000
No.8 Johann King of
Saxony
Johann Saxony Johann 1859 1 Thaler 1 Thaler KM1199

mintage:
2,490,000
No.9 Peter Grand Duke of
Oldenburg
Peter
Peter of Oldenburg 1866 1 Thaler
1 Thaler KM196

mintage:
72,000
No.10 Maximilian
Joseph II
King of
Bavaria
Maximilian Joseph II Bavaria Maximilian II 1861 1 Thaler 1 Thaler KM468

mintage:
2,682,000
No.11 Dr. Roeck Mayor of
Lübeck
Dr. Roeck Lubeck 3 Mark 1908 A City issued
1 Thaler
KM168.2

mintage:
33,334
No.12 Heinrich XIV Hereditary Prince
of Reuss-Schleiz
Heinrich LXVII
Reuss junger line 1868 1 thaler
1 Thaler KM73

mintage:
14,000
No.13 Franz-Joseph I Emperor of
Austria-Hungary
Franz-Joseph I
Franz-Joseph I 1909 2 Corona
1 Thaler KM2244

mintage:
4,949,000
No.14 Heinrich Prince of
The Netherlands
Heinrich
No.14 Hendrik 1870 Governor of the Netherlands
10 Centimes N/A

mintage:
1,200,000
No.15 Dr. Haller Mayor of Hamburg Dr. Haller Hamburg 1909 3 Mark City issued
3 Mark
KM620

mintage:
1,388,892
No.16 Georg V King of
Hannover
Georg V
Hannover 1861 1 thaler km230 18.5200 0.9000
1 Thaler KM220

mintage:
736,000
No.17 Georg Victor Prince of
Waldeck-Pyrmont
Georg Victor
Waldeck 1859 1 thaler
1 Thaler KM135

mintage:
14,000
No.18 Friedrich Wilhelm I Elector of
Hessen
Friedrich Wilhelm I
Friedrich Wilhelm Hessen 1 thaler
1 Thaler KM621

mintage:
28,000
No.19 Freidrich Günther Prince of
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Freidrich Günther Freidrich Günther 1 Thaler KM177

mintage:
17,000
No.20 Johann II Prince of
Liechtenstein
Johann II Johann II 1 Thaler Y1

mintage:
Unknown
No.21 Bernhard II Duke of
Sachsen-Meiningen
Bernhard II Bernhard II 1 Thaler KM167

mintage:
40,000
No.22 Günther Friedrich
Carl II
Prince of
Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen
Günther Friedrich Carl II Gunther Frederich carl II 1 Thaler KM148

mintage:
10,400
No.23 Arnold Duckwitz Mayor of
Bremen
No.23 Arnold Duckwitz Bremen City issued
1 Thaler
KM246

mintage:
50,000
No.24 Frederick Wilhelm
Ludwig
Grand Duke of
Baden
Friedrich
Friedrich I
1 Thaler KM240

mintage:
288,760
No.25 Adolf Wilhelm Duke of
Nassau
Adolf Wilhelm August Karl Friedrich
Adolph
1 Thaler KM80

mintage: 6,162
No.26 Wilhelm Duke of
Brunswick
Wilhelm
Wilhelm
1 Thaler KM1152

mintage:
107,000
No.27 Ludwig III Grand Duke of
Hessen-Darmstadt
Ludwig III Ludwig III 1 Thaler KM338

mintage:
594,000
No.28 Karl
Frederick Alexander
Crown Prince of
Wurttemberg
Karl Charles Frederick Alexander Karl Charles Frederick Alexander 1 Thaler KM620

mintage:
114,000

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Who didn't attend?

There were a number of rulers of the Confederation who either didn't attend nor sent a deputy or could have attended but did send a deputy. For completeness I have listed these below and while I intend to get a representative coin for each of them, that objective is secondary. There were 7 territories that sent no representative, and 3 which did send a deputy. Wurttemberg and Reuss-Schleiz sent deputies for elderly rulers but the story for Anhalt is more complicated. Alexander Carl, Duke of Anhalt Bernburg died only days before the meeting but he would have been the one to recieve the invitation from Franz-Joseph I to attend so I have included him. His successor (Leopold IV) did not attend either, but likely there was not enough time to organise his place as he was only elevated days before, but he did qualify so I have included him also. In the event it was actually Friedrich I, his son, who attended in his stead and as he never issued a 1 thaler coin or a 3 Mark coin I have had to use his fathers coin in the main table. He did issue a very expensive 2 mark coin which I may use at a later date.

Photo No. Ruler Territory Ruler Image Coin image Coin Type Reference
-N/A- Wilhelm I King of Prussia William I King of Prussia Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV 1861 1 thaler - Coronation of Wilhelm and Augusta 1 Thaler KM488

mintage:
1,000,000
-N/A- Wilhelm I King of Prussia William I King of Prussia Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV 1861 1 thaler - Coronation of Wilhelm and Augusta 1 Thaler KM500

mintage:
800,000
-N/A- Frederick VII King of Denmark Frederik King of Denmark
Denmark 1855 2 reigsthaler
2 Rigsdaler KM761.2
-N/A- Heinrich XXII Prince of Reuss
elder line
Heinrich XXII Reuss elder line
Reuss senior line Heinrich XXII 1868 thaler
1 Thaler KM120

mintage:
7,100
-N/A- Leopold III Prince of Lippe-Detmold Leopold III Prince of Lippe
Lippe 1860 thaler
1 Thaler KM267

mintage:
26,000
-N/A- Alexander Carl Duke
of Anhalt Bernburg
Alexander Carl duke of Anhalt Bernburg
Anhalt Benburb 1859 thaler
1 Thaler KM86

mintage:
50,000
-N/A- Leopold IV Duke
of Anhalt
Leopold IV Duke of Anhalt
anhalt dessau 1863 1 thaler
1 Thaler KM15

mintage:
50,000
-N/A- Ernst I Duke of
Sachsen-Altenburg
Ernst I Duke of Sachsen Altenburg
Hesse Homburg 1862 1 thaler
1 Thaler KM C.16

mintage:
50,000
-N/A- Ferdinand Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg Ferdinand Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
Saxe Altenburg 1869 thaler
1 Thaler KM20

mintage:
6,592
-N/A- William I King of Württemberg William I of Württemberg
To be added
1 Thaler KM
-N/A- Heinrich LXVII Prince of Reuss-Schleiz Heinrich LXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line
Vereinsthaler 1858 Reuss j.L. Heinrich LXVII
1 Thaler KM

mintage:
10,000

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Other Austria/German large silver coins

Over time, the thaler (taler) denomination was discontinued, though the 3 mark denomination, similar in size, was considered it's successor.

Photo No. Ruler Territory Ruler Image Coin image Coin Type Reference
-N/A- Fredrich Wilhelm III King of Prussia Frederick William III Frederick William III 1 Thaler KM396

mintage:
unknown
-N/A- Fredrich Wilhelm III King of Prussia Frederick William III Frederick William III 1 Thaler KM396

mintage:
50,000
-N/A- Fredrich Wilhelm IV King of Prussia Fredrich Wilhelm IV Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV 1855 1 thaler 1 Thaler KM455
mintage: 7,300,000
-N/A- Wilhelm II German Emperor
King of Prussia
William I Prussia Prussia William II 1913 3 mark 3 Mark KM535

mintage:
1,000,000
-N/A- Ludwig II King of Bavaria Ludwig II Bavaria Bavaria Ludwig 1868 1 Thaler 1 Thaler KM877

mintage:
-N/A- Otto King of Bavaria Otto Bavaria Bavaria Otto 1910 3 mark 3 Mark KM515

mintage:
717,460
-N/A- Luitpold Prince Regent of Bavaria Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria Bavaria 1911 3 Mark 3 Mark KM998

mintage:
639,721
-N/A- Ludwig III King of Bavaria Ludwig III of Bavaria Bavaria Ludwig III 1914 3 mark 3 Mark KM515

mintage:
717,460
-N/A- Frederick II Grand duke of Baden Frederick II of Baden Frederick II of Baden 1909 3 mark 3 Mark KM515

mintage:
753,000
-N/A- William II King of Württemberg William II of Württemberg Wurttemberg 1909 3 mark F 3 Mark KM515

mintage:
1,906,698
-N/A- Francis II Emperor of Austria Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 1795 1 Kronenthaler - Milan 1 Kronenthaler KM293

mintage:
unknown
-N/A- Frederick Augustus III King of Saxony Frederick Augustus III of Saxony Saxony 1913 3 Mark 3 Mark KM1267

mintage:
307,000
-N/A- Heinrich XX Prince of Reuss Greiz Reuss Heinrich XX 1858 thaler Reuss Heinrich XX 1858 thaler 1 thaler

mintage:
9,500
-N/A- Ernst August King of Hannover Ernst August Hannover Ernst August Hannover 1851 1 thaler 1 thaler

mintage:
453,000
-N/A- Ernst Ludwig Grand Duke of Hesse Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse Hesse 1910 3 marks 3 Mark

mintage:
200,000


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